This reduces the likelihood of unintentional conflict escalation. They can agree to "cut losses" if the struggle escalates too far, or avoid entering struggles in which entrapment seems likely.
Despite the enormous potential for mainstream software, accidents of history and fashion have relegated games to the entertainment bin, and the stigma of immaturity is tough to overcome. Manipulation software serves the human urge to create. If large, public steps have been taken to de-escalate conflict, this new course may seem irreversible.
This suggests three general reasons why a person will turn to software: To design excellent software, however, this mindset is necessary but insufficient.
The answer lies with context.
Very little in the above designs is software-specific. Their primary concern was how a machine could help a person find and understand relevant knowledge. There are a number of graphic design criticisms one could make—the uniform text size and weight results in a solid, oppressive mass; the abundance of saturated primary colors gives a distracting, carnival-like appearance; the text is spread all over the page, giving the eye no well-defined path to follow.
This is winnowed down to a dozen, using context that is inferred entirely from the search term contributed by the user. Geographical locations belong on maps, and dates belong on calendars.
And a reader consulting an encyclopedia must not only find the right entry on the page and the right page in the book, but even the right book on the shelf!
Some products of conventional information graphic design include bus schedules, telephone books, newspapers, maps, and shopping catalogs. What pages must there be? Learning predictors attempt a deeper understanding of the user.
A good graphic designer understands how to arrange information on the page so the reader can ask and answer questions, make comparisons, and draw conclusions.
Finally, adversaries who develop shared norms of interaction may be constrained in the degree to which they escalate conflict. A person uses information software to construct and manipulate a model that is internal to the mind—a mental representation of information.
Alan Cooper defines excise in this context as a cognitive or physical penalty for using a tool—effort demanded by the tool that is not directly in pursuit of a goal.
She wants to know what stories and ads are still on the table, their sizes, and how they can be fit in.
Unlike conventional graphics, which must be suitable for any reader in any situation, a context-sensitive graphic incorporates who the user is and what exactly the user wants to learn at the moment.
Someday, a computer without GPS might seem as silly as a computer without a clock. Even more graphically challenging is manipulation of abstract objects, such as music or financial data, where the graphical representation must show not only what can be done with it, but what it is in the first place.Additional insights into limiting escalation/de-escalation are offered by several Beyond Intractability project participants.
Abstract. The ubiquity of frustrating, unhelpful software interfaces has motivated decades of research into “Human-Computer Interaction.” In this paper, I suggest that the long-standing focus on “interaction” may be misguided.Download