Principles of international diversification essay

Neither random selection, nor adequate number of securities can guarantee this. The ADs who have the accounts of NRIs can be used as the medium for portfolio investments on the stock exchanges. In this chart, as seen above, returns can be improved and risk reduced by diversification.

The principles involved in diversification are as follows: They can alternatively trade in only major world markets, like U. This may or may not reduce risk to the optimum level. The optimisation process with international diversification is more complicated and active investment strategy will give better returns than passive strategy.

Two companies, one in steel and the other in chemicals are less risky than two in either steel or chemicals. Besides, the securities need not be equally weighted as in the above example.

Original investment can be repatriated after 3 years from the date of the issue. The benefits of diversification are well perceived by Portfolio Managers, that many in developed countries, started investing in foreign bonds, stocks and other instruments.

Capital gains and dividends etc. Active strategy is oriented to identifying relatively attractive and unattractive national markets.

Term Paper on Diversification | Investment | Financial Economics

Adjust for hedging of currency rates and Market returns so that an optimum portfolio with higher return and lowest risk is built. Beyond the frontier line, one cannot reduce the risk further, due to diseconomies or difficulties of reducing the risk further.

The frontier of efficiency portfolios can be widened, by inclusion of foreign investments in a portfolio. The cumulative amount of their investment upto March was more than Rs.

But this is a misconception as economies of scale operate in the reverse direction involving diseconomies with the result that monitoring and review of the portfolio become inefficient, costly and cumbersome and outweigh the benefits of diversification.

The gains or returns out of foreign investments might be offset by opposite and adverse movements in exchange rates. This involves placing of companies in any order and picking them up in random manner.

If the number is too small, risk cannot be reduced adequately and if the number is too big, there will be diseconomies and difficulty of supervision, analysis and monitoring will increase risk again.

This limit was later removed. The breadth of the market in terms of the available number of traded companies and their floating stock are also considered in addition to the expected returns and risks involved in trading in such markets.

But the risk or standard deviation of a portfolio is not simply a weighted average of individual securities. This principle believes in the possibilities of reducing risk to even zero, if there are adequate number of companies and industries.

If the county has only capital account controls but no current account controls, it is partly attractive as in the case of India. Advantages of diversification are seen in both returns and risk.

Term Paper on Diversification Term Paper 1. Markowitz emphasised the need for a right number of securities — not too many or too less — and securities which are negatively correlated or not correlated-at all. These factors create more risks. Foreign EPS, adjusted for forward exchange rates, foreign interest rates, inflation rates vis-a-vis the GDP growth rates, so that the international investor knows which markets are attractive internationally, and he can pursue a policy of international diversification to secure offsetting of risks — that is, investment risks in Brazil, offsetting investment risks in Germany and yet the returns in total portfolios are higher, when taken back in U.

A few examples are given here: Sale and Transfer of shares is also permitted by the RBI without prior permission in respect of Govt. NRI Investments in India can take any of the following three forms: By combining 4 and 5 into a portfolio, the investor has reduced the risk without any loss of return.

Short- term rate and foreign short-term rate. If market earnings growth is higher than the growth rate of GDP it is potentially good market. Similarly, two companies or two industries which are similar in nature of demand or market etc. Thus, leaving the domestic frontiers, the foreign economies may themselves provide a picture of varying degrees of economic and business fluctuations, high and low inflation rates vis-a-vis the GDP growth rates, etc.

If the above features are prevailing in a good measure, such countries are worthwhile and attractive for foreign portfolio Management. They found that they can extend diversification principle to foreign stocks, bonds etc.

This refers to the diversification by simply picking stocks at random. There is thus a number of companies to be chosen for a given amount of investment.

There is no ceiling on the amount of remittable dividend, but the investee company has to take the RBI permission in this regard. We have seen that in the case of unsystematic risk, the method of lowering the risk is to diversify into a number of companies and a number of industries, for selection of scrips in the portfolio.International Diversification: The benefits of diversification are well perceived by Portfolio Managers, that many in developed countries, started investing in foreign bonds, stocks and other instruments.

Running head: INTERNATIONAL PORTFOLIO DIVERSIFICATION International Portfolio Diversification International Portfolio Diversification Globalization resulted, among other things, in a noticeable increase in foreign trade and investment worldwide.

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Introduction 3 International Portfolio Investment definition 4 Principles of International Portfolio Investment 4 The Benefits from International Portfolio Investment 5 killarney10mile.coms 6 Risks of International Portfolio Investments 6 International Diversification definition 7 In the following literature review emphasis is given to the theory of diversification and its underlying scope for businesses.

The literature review addresses the key-motivators for diversification and explores answers to the question that why is it so appealing for some businesses to deploy the strategy for diversification. At times a more theoretical comment may also be presented, as many of the ideas and principles of international diversification have been the subject of internal research.

Various markets in which international diversification must be applied; exchange markets, money markets, and equity markets.

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Principles of international diversification essay
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